Associate Professor Darryl Eyles

Head of the Developmental Neurobiology Group

Queensland Brain Institute

+61 7 334 66370


Professor Darryl Eyles is a science graduate who obtained his Ph.D. in the Department of Medicine, The University of Queensland. He has been with QCMHR since its inception in 1987.  He is Laboratory Head for QCMHR’s Developmental Neurobiology laboratory at the Queensland Brain Institute at UQ, where he is a faculty member and has adjunct teaching positions with UQ’s Schools of Biomedical and Health Sciences.

Darryl has been the recipient of a number of awards including the Forum for European-Australian Science and Technology Cooperation award. He is a reviewer for more than 10 scientific journals, a reviewer for a number of international funding bodies and a NHMRC committee panel member for psychology/psychiatry project grants. Darryl has published more than 90 scientific articles or book chapters.  Research interests include developmental animal models for schizophrenia, vitamin D neurobiology, dopamine ontogeny and the neurobiology of schizophrenia.


Darryl’s research focuses exclusively on how known risk-factors for schizophrenia change the way the brain develops. His group have established the biological plausibility of various epidemiological risk factors for this disease. Much of the research focuses on the effects of developmental vitamin D, (DVD), deficiency on brain development. He also is interested in the effects Advanced Paternal Age and how this may relate to both autism and schizophrenia. Darryl has also established models of impaired dopaminergic development in the fly and zebra fish brains in order to investigate how the two major theories of schizophrenia namely the “Dopamine Hypothesis” and the “Neurodevelopmental Hypothesis“ of schizophrenia can be synthesised.



Kesby, J. P., Turner, K. M., Alexander, S., Eyles, D. W., McGrath, J. J., & Burne, T. H. (2017). Developmental vitamin D deficiency alters multiple neurotransmitter systems in the neonatal rat brain. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 62, 1-7.

Borg, S. A., Buckley, H., Owen, R., Marin, A. C., Lu, Y., Eyles, D., … & Bishop, N. J. (2018). Early life vitamin D depletion alters the postnatal response to skeletal loading in growing and mature bone. PloS one, 13(1), e0190675.

Ali, A., Cui, X., Alexander, S., & Eyles, D. (2018). The placental immune response is dysregulated developmentally vitamin D deficient rats: Relevance to Autism. The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology.

Borg, S. A., Buckley, H., Owen, R., Marin, A. C., Lu, Y., Eyles, D., … & Bishop, N. J. (2018). Early life vitamin D depletion alters the postnatal response to skeletal loading in growing and mature bone. PloS one, 13(1), e0190675.


Cui, X., Gooch, H., Petty, A., McGrath, J. J., & Eyles, D. (2017). Vitamin D and the brain: Genomic and non-genomic actions. Molecular and cellular endocrinology, 453, 131-143.

Suetani, S., Saha, S., Eyles, D. W., Scott, J. G., & McGrath, J. J. (2017). Prevalence and correlates of suboptimal vitamin D status in people living with psychotic disorders: Data from the Australian Survey of High Impact Psychosis. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 51(9), 921-929.

Cui, Xiaoying, Pertile, Renata and Eyles, Darryl W. (2017) The vitamin D receptor (VDR) binds to the nuclear matrix via its hinge domain: a potential mechanism for the reduction in VDR mediated transcription in mitotic cells. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, . doi:10.1016/j.mce.2017.11.015

Pertile, R. A., Cui, X., Hammond, L., & Eyles, D. W. (2017). Vitamin D regulation of GDNF/Ret signaling in dopaminergic neurons. The FASEB Journal, fj-201700713R.

Moe, Aung Aung Kywe, Medely, Gregory A., Reeks, Timothy, Burne, Thomas H. J. and Eyles, Darryl W. (2017). Short- and long-term effects of risperidone on catalepsy sensitisation and acquisition of conditioned avoidance response: adolescent vs adult rats. Pharmacological Research, 121 113. doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2017.04.013

Luan, Wei, Hammond, Luke Alexander, Cotter, Edmund, Osborne, Geoffrey William, Alexander, Suzanne Adele, Nink, Virginia, Cui, Xiaoying and Eyles, Darryl Walter (2017). Developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency reduces Nurr1 and TH expression in post-mitotic dopamine neurons in rat mesencephalon. Molecular Neurobiology, 111. doi:10.1007/s12035-017-0497-3

Vuillermot, Stephanie, Luan, Wei, Meyer, Urs and Eyles, Darryl (2017). Vitamin D treatment during pregnancy prevents autism-related phenotypes in a mouse model of maternal immune activation. Molecular Autism, 8 1: . doi:10.1186/s13229-017-0125-0

Ferguson, Lachlan, Petty, Alice, Rohrscheib, Chelsie, Troup, Michael, Kirszenblat, Leonie, Eyles, Darryl W. and van Swinderen, Bruno (2017). Transient dysregulation of dopamine signaling in a developing drosophila arousal circuit permanently impairs behavioral responsiveness in adults. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 8 FEB: . doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00022

Smith, Chloe A., Sun, Cong, Pezic, Angela , Rodda, Christine, Cameron, Fergus, Allen, Katie, Craig, Maria E. , Carlin, John, Dwyer, Terry, Lucas, Robyn M., Eyles, Darryl W. , Kemp, Andrew S., Ellis, Justine A. and Ponsonby, Anne-Louise (2017). Determinants of neonatal vitamin D levels as measured on neonatal dried blood spot samples. Neonatology, 111 2: 153161. doi:10.1159/000448680


Ali, Asad, Cui, Xiaoying and Eyles, Darryl (2016). Developmental vitamin D deficiency and autism: putative pathogenic mechanisms. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, . doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2016.12.018

Vinkhuyzen, A. A. E., Eyles, D. W., Burne, T. H. J., Blanken, L. M. E., Kruithof, C. J., Verhulst, F., Jaddoe, V. W., Tiemeier, H. and McGrath, J. J. (2016). Gestational vitamin D deficiency and autism-related traits: the Generation R Study. Molecular Psychiatry, . doi:10.1038/mp.2016.213

Pertile, Renata A. N., Cui, Xiaoying and Eyles, Darryl W. (2016). Vitamin D signaling and the differentiation of developing dopamine systems. Neuroscience, 333 193203. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2016.07.020

Moe, Aung Aung Kywe, Kurniawan, Nyoman D., Alexander, Suzanne, Cui, Xiaoying, Burne, Thomas H. J. and Eyles, Darryl W. (2016). Risperidone induces long-lasting changes in the conditioned avoidance response and accumbal gene expression selectively in animals treated as adolescents. Neuropharmacology, 108 264274. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2016.04.035

Moe, Aung Aung Kywe, Scott, James G., Burne, Thomas H. J. and Eyles, Darryl W. (2016). Neural changes induced by antipsychotic administration in adolescence: a review of studies in laboratory rodents. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 30 8: 771794. doi:10.1177/0269881116654776

Cairncross, Carolyn, Grant, Cameron, Stonehouse, Welma, Conlon, Cath, McDonald, Barry, Houghton, Lisa, Eyles, Darryl, Camargo, Carlos A., Coad, Jane and von Hurst, Pamela (2016). The relationship between vitamin D status and allergic diseases in New Zealand preschool children. Nutrients, 8 6: . doi:10.3390/nu8060326

Miliku, Kozeta, Vinkhuyzen, Anna, Blanken, Laura M. E., McGrath, John J., Eyles, Darryl W., Burne, Thomas H., Hofman, Albert, Tiemeier, Henning, Steegers, Eric A. P., Gaillard, Romy and Jaddoe, Vincent W. V. (2016). Maternal vitamin D concentrations during pregnancy, fetal growth patterns, and risks of adverse birth outcomes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 103 6: 15141522. doi:10.3945/ajcn.115.123752

Gazibara, Tatjana, Elbert, Niels J., den Dekker, Herman T., de Jongste, Johan C., Reiss, Irwin, McGrath, John J., Eyles, Darryl W., Burne, Thomas H., Tiemeier, Henning, Jaddoe, Vincent W. V., Pasmans, Suzanne G. M. A. and Duijts, Liesbeth (2016). Associations of maternal and fetal 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels with childhood eczema: The Generation R Study. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, 27 3: 283289. doi:10.1111/pai.12530

Kvaskoff, David, Heath, Alicia K., Simila, Henry A., Ko, Pauline, English, Dallas R. and Eyles, Darryl W. (2016). Minimizing matrix effects for the accurate quantification of 25-hydroxyvitamin D metabolites in dried blood spots by LC-MS/MS. Clinical Chemistry, 62 4: 639646. doi:10.1373/clinchem.2015.251538

Heath, Alicia K., Williamson, Elizabeth J., Kvaskoff, David, Hodge, Allison M., Ebeling, Peter R., Baglietto, Laura, Neale, Rachel E., Giles, Graham G., Eyles, Darryl W. and English, Dallas R. (2016). 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and all-cause mortality: the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Public Health Nutrition, 110. doi:10.1017/S1368980016000501

Overeem, Kathie, Eyles, Darryl W., McGrath, John J. and Burne, Thomas H. J. (2016). The impact of vitamin D deficiency on behaviour and brain function in rodents. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 7 4752. doi:10.1016/j.cobeha.2015.11.012

Gazibara, Tatjana, den Dekker, Herman T., de Jongste, Johan C., McGrath, John J., Eyles, Darryl W., Burne, Thomas H., Reiss, Irwin, Franco, Oscar H., Tiemeier, Henning, Jaddoe, Vincent W. V. and Duijts, Liesbeth (2016). Associations of maternal and fetal 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels with childhood lung function and asthma: the Generation R Study. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 46 2: 337346. doi:10.1111/cea.12645

Lefevre, Emilia M., Eyles, Darryl W. and Burne, Thomas H. J. (2016). Behavioural sensitisation to MK-801 is dose-dependent and independent of environmental context. Behavioural Brain Research, 298 Part B: 241245. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2015.11.014

Cairncross, C.T., Stonehouse, W., Conlon, C. A., Grant, C. C., McDonald, B., Houghton, L. A., Eyles, Darryl, Camargo Jr, C. A., Coad, J. and von Hurst, P. R. (2016). Predictors of vitamin D status in New Zealand preschool children. Maternal and Child Nutrition, . doi:10.1111/mcn.12340


Cui, X., Pertile, R., Liu, P. and Eyles, D. W. (2015). Vitamin D regulates tyrosine hydroxylase expression: N-cadherin a possible mediator. Neuroscience, 304 90100. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2015.07.048

Rohrscheib, Chelsie E., Bondy, Elizabeth, Josh, Peter, Riegler, Markus, Eyles, Darryl, van Swinderen, Bruno, Weible, Michael W. and Brownlie, Jeremy C. (2015). Wolbachia influences the production of octopamine and affects Drosophila male aggression. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 81 14: 45734580. doi:10.1128/AEM.00573-15

Cui, Xiaoying, Gooch, Helen, Groves, Natalie J., Sah, Pankaj, Burne, Thomas H., Eyles, Darryl W. and McGrath, John J. (2015). Vitamin D and the brain: key questions for future research. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 148 305309. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2014.11.004

Tovey, Euan R., Stelzer-Braid, Sacha, Toelle, Brett G., Oliver, Brian G., Reddel, Helen K., Willenborg, Christiana M., Belessis, Yvonne, Garden, Frances L., Jaffe, Adam, Strachan, Roxanne, Eyles, Darryl, Rawlinson, William D. and Marks, Guy B. (2015). Rhinoviruses significantly affect day-to-day respiratory symptoms of children with asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 135 3: 663669.e12. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.10.020

Mills, Natalie T., Wright, Margaret J., Henders, Anjali K., Eyles, Darryl W., Baune, Bernhard T., McGrath, John J., Byrne, Edna M., Hansell, Narelle K., Birosova, Eva, Scott, James G., Martin, Nicholas G., Montgomery, Grant W., Wray, Naomi R. and Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E. (2015). Heritability of Transforming Growth Factor-β1 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Receptor Type 1 Expression and Vitamin D Levels in Healthy Adolescent Twins. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 18 1: 2835. doi:10.1017/thg.2014.70

Fernell, Elisabeth, Bejerot, Susanne, Westerlund, Joakim, Miniscalco, Carmela, Simila, Henry, Eyles, Darryl, Gillberg, Christopher and Humble, Mats B. (2015). Autism spectrum disorder and low vitamin D at birth: a sibling control study. Molecular Autism, 6 1: 3.13.9. doi:10.1186/2040-2392-6-3

Vinkhuyzen, Anna A.E., Eyles, Darryl W., Burne, Thomas H., Blanken, Laura M.E., Kruithof, Claudia J., Verhulst, Frank, Jaddoe, Vincent W., Tiemeier, Henning and McGrath, John J. (2015). Prevalence and predictors of vitamin D deficiency based on maternal mid-gestation and neonatal cord bloods: the Generation R Study. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry And Molecular Biology, 164 161167. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2015.09.018

Miliku, K., Voortman, T., Franco, O. H., McGrath, J. J., Eyles, D. W., Burne, T. H., Hofman, A., Tiemeier, H. and Jaddoe, V. W. V. (2015). Vitamin D status during fetal life and childhood kidney outcomes. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70 5: 629634. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2015.216


Hollins, Sharon L., Goldie, Belinda J., Carroll, Adam P., Mason, Elizabeth A., Walker, Frederick R., Eyles, Darryl W. and Cairns, Murray J. (2014). Ontogeny of small RNA in the regulation of mammalian brain development. BMC Genomics, 15 777: 113. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-777

Ueda, Peter, Rafatnia, Farshid, Baarnhielm, Maria, Frobom, Robin, Korzunowicz, Greg, Lonnerbro, Ragnar, Hedstrom, Anna Karin, Eyles, Darryl, Olsson, Tomas and Alfredsson, Lars (2014). Neonatal vitamin D status and risk of multiple sclerosis. Annals of Neurology, 76 3: 338346. doi:10.1002/ana.24210

Heath, Alicia K., Williamson, Elizabeth J., Ebeling, Peter R., Kvaskoff, David, Eyles, Darryl W and English, Dallas R. (2014). Measurements of 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in archived dried blood spots are reliable and accurately reflect those in Plasma. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 99 9: 33193324. doi:10.1210/jc.2014-1269

Cui, Xiaoying, Lefevre, Emilia, Turner, Karly M., Coelho, Carlos M., Alexander, Suzy, Burne, Thomas H. J. and Eyles, Darryl W. (2014). MK-801-induced behavioural sensitisation alters dopamine release and turnover in rat prefrontal cortex. Psychopharmacology, 232 3: 509517. doi:10.1007/s00213-014-3689-9

Eyles, D. W., Liu, P. Y., Josh, P. and Cui, X. (2014). Intracellular distribution of the vitamin D receptor in the brain: Comparison with classic target tissues and redistribution with development. Neuroscience, 268 19. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2014.02.042

Tornhammar, Per, Ueda, Peter, Hult, Martin, Simila, Henry, Eyles, Darryl and Norman, Mikael (2014). Season of birth, neonatal vitamin D status, and cardiovascular disease risk at 35 y of age: A cohort study from Sweden. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 99 3: 472478. doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.072520

Burne, T. H. J., Alexander, S., Turner, K. M., Eyles, D. W. and McGrath, J. J. (2014). Developmentally vitamin D-deficient rats show enhanced prepulse inhibition after acute δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Behavioural Pharmacology, 25 3: 236244. doi:10.1097/FBP.0000000000000041


Byrne, Jacqueline H., Voogt, Meggie, Turner, Karly M., Eyles, Darryl W., McGrath, John J. and Burne, Thomas H. J. (2013). The impact of adult vitamin D deficiency on behaviour and brain function in male Sprague-Dawley rats. PLoS ONE, 8 8: e71593.1e71593.14. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0071593

Kesby, James P., Cui, Xiaoying, Burne, Thomas H. J. and Eyles, Darryl W. (2013). Altered dopamine ontogeny in the developmentally vitamin D deficient rat and its relevance to schizophrenia. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience, 7111: 113. doi:10.3389/fncel.2013.00111

Cui, Xiaoying, Groves, Natalie J., Burne, Thomas H. J., Eyles, Darryl W. and McGrath, John J. (2013). Low vitamin D concentration exacerbates adult brain dysfunction. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 97 5: 907908. doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.061176

Cui, X., Pelekanos, M., Liu, P-Y, Burne, T. H. J., McGrath, J. J. and Eyles, D. W. (2013). The vitamin D receptor in dopamine neurons; its presence in human substantia nigra and its ontogenesis in rat midbrain. Neuroscience, 2367787. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2013.01.035

Turner, Karly M., Young, Jared W., McGrath, John J., Eyles, Darryl W. and Burne, Thomas H. J. (2013). Cognitive performance and response inhibition in developmentally vitamin D (DVD)-deficient rats. Behavioural Brain Research, 242 1: 4753. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2012.12.029

Groves, Natalie J., Kesby, James P., Eyles, Darryl W., McGrath, John J., Mackay-Sim, Alan and Burne, Thomas H. J. (2013). Adult vitamin D deficiency leads to behavioural and brain neurochemical alterations in C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice. Behavioural Brain Research, 241 1: 120131. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2012.12.001

Lanham, S. A., Roberts, C., Habgood, A. K., Alexander, S., Burne, T. H. J., Eyles, D. W., Trueman, C. N., Cooper, M., McGrath, J. J. and Oreffo, R. O. C. (2013). Effect of vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy on offspring bone structure, composition and quality in later life. Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease, 4 1: 4955. doi:10.1017/S2040174412000542

Eyles, Darryl, Burne, Thomas H. J. and McGrath, John J. (2013). Vitamin D, effects on brain development, adult brain function and the links between low levels of vitamin D and neuropsychiatric disease. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, 34 1: 4764. doi:10.1016/j.yfrne.2012.07.001

Calcagno, B., Eyles, D., van Alphen, B. and van Swinderen, B. (2013). Transient activation of dopaminergic neurons during development modulates visual responsiveness, locomotion and brain activity in a dopamine ontogeny model of schizophrenia. Translational Psychiatry, 3e206.1e206.10. doi:10.1038/tp.2012.139


Mullins, Raymond James, Clark, Sunday, Wiley, Veronica, Eyles, Darryl and Camargo, Carlos A. (2012). Neonatal vitamin D status and childhood peanut allergy: a pilot study. Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, 109 5: 324328. doi:10.1016/j.anai.2012.07.009

Fernandes de Abreu, Diana Andrea, Landel, Verena, Barnett, Adrian G., McGrath, John, Eyles, Darryl and Feron, Francois (2012). Prenatal Vitamin D deficiency induces an early and more severe experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the second generation. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 13 9: 1091110919. doi:10.3390/ijms130910911

Piper, Michael, Beneyto, Monica, Burne, Thomas H. J., Eyles, Darryl W., Lewis, David A. and McGrath, John J. (2012). The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia: Convergent clues from epidemiology and neuropathology. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 35 3: 571584. doi:10.1016/j.psc.2012.06.002

Formella, Isabel, Scott, Ethan, Burne, Thomas H.J., Lauren Harms, Liu, Pei-Yun, Karly Turner, Cui, Xiaoying and Eyles, Darryl (2012). Transient knockdown of tyrosine hydroxylase during development has persistent effects on behaviour in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). PLoS ONE, 7 8: e42482.1e42482.8. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0042482

Stewart, Niall, Simpson, Steve Jr., van der Mei, Ingrid, Ponsonby, Anne-Louise, Blizzard, Leigh, Dwyer, Terrence, Pittas, Fotini, Eyles, Darryl, Ko, Pauline and Taylor, Bruce V. (2012). Interferon-β and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D interact to modulate relapse risk in MS. Neurology, 79 3: 254260. doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e31825fded9

Kvaskoff, David, Ko, Pauline, Simila Henry and Eyles, Darryl (2012), Distribution of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in dried blood spots and implications for its quantitation by tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography B, 901 4752. doi:10.1016/j.jchromb.2012.05.040

Harms, Lauren R., Cowin, Gary, Eyles, Darryl W., Kurniawan, Nyoman D., McGrath, John J. and Burne, Thomas H. J. (2012). Neuroanatomy and psychomimetic-induced locomotion in C57BL/6J and 129/X1SvJ mice exposed to developmental vitamin D deficiency. Behavioural Brain Research, 230 1: 125131. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2012.02.007

Harms, Lauren R., Turner, Karly M., Eyles, Darryl W., Young, Jared W., McGrath, John J. and Burne, Thomas H. J. (2012). Attentional Processing in C57BL/6J Mice Exposed to Developmental Vitamin D Deficiency. PLoS One, 7 4 Article No. ee35896: . doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0035896

Kesby, James P., O’Loan, Jonathan C., Alexander, Suzanne, Deng, Chao, Huang, Xu-Feng, McGrath, John J., Eyles, Darryl W. and Burne, Thomas H. J. (2012). Developmental vitamin D deficiency alters MK-801-induced behaviours in adult offspring. Psychopharmacology, 220 3: 455463. doi:10.1007/s00213-011-2492-0

Eyles, D., Feldon, J. and Meyer, U. (2012). Schizophrenia: Do all roads lead to dopamine or is this where they start? Evidence from two epidemiologically informed developmental rodent models. Translational Psychiatry, 2 e81.1e81.10. doi:10.1038/tp.2012.6.